Cybernetics is the study of human/machine interaction guided by the principle that numerous different types of systems can be studied according to principles of feedback, control, and communications. The field has a quantitative component, inherited from feedback control and information theory, but is primary a qualitative, analytical tool – one might even say a philosophy of technology. Cybernetics is characterized by a tendency to universalize the notion of feedback, seeing it as the underlying principle of the technological world. Closely related variants include: information theory, human factors engineering, control theory, systems theory. Norbert Wiener founded the field with his in his 1948 book Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine which articulated the marriage of communication and control for a generation of engineers, systems theorists, and technical enthusiasts of varied stripes.